Industrial Benefits

The industrial products listed here are by no means all of those products that have developed in the past one hundred years but they do include many of the most important. Almost no product remains static in its life cycle and evolutionary development. Often a slingshot effect occurs and a new technology or product lifts the original product into a new category and a new set of functionalities. The future of industrial technology rests on the shoulders of these products.

  Cadmium-nickel storage cell – a nickel cadmium battery used extensively in small devices

Fuel cell – a cell that converts chemical energy directly into electrical energy

Gas (and expansion) turbine -

Photovoltaic cell – a cell that has the capability of generating a voltage as a result of exposure to visible or other electromagnetic radiation

Nuclear energy system – an energy resource developed through the exploitation of atomic energy

Surge protector – a device that prevents power surges from reaching critical electronic tools and instruments

Transducers – a device through which energy can flow from more than one transmission system to another

  Acrylic (Plexiglas) – polymers of acrylic acid used for its transparent quality and ability to be molded

Alkyd paint – a paint made from synthetic polyester resins

Bakelite – an early thermosetting plastic made from copolymerization of phenol and formaldehyde

Cellophane – an early plastic sheeting of regenerated cellulose used chiefly in packaging

Cellulose acetate – an ascetic ester that is flexible, long lasting and useful for film products, textiles, and packaging

Ceramic fiber – a filament or thread for reinforcement and for thermal, electrical and sound purposes

Ceramic magnet – a magnet made from ceramics and magnetic powders

Carbon fiber – a material made by pyrolyzing spun, felted or woven raw material to a char

Dacron – a polyethelene terephthalate plastic used in textiles

Duralumin – an aluminum alloy containing copper and known for its light weight and hardness

Epoxy – a polyester resin that has high strength, low shrinkage and is used for coatings, adhesives, in casting and foam

Fiber reinforced plastic – plastic most commonly reinforced with glass used for intertwining reinforcement

Foam rubber – rubber in a cellular mass with many small gas bubbles encapsulated

Freon – a halogenated hydrocarbon used controversially in refrigerants and aerosol applications

Metal powder – metal powders that are made into parts through the application of heat and pressure

Mylar – a polyester plastic used to make heat resistant film as in tape recording

Neoprene – a synthetic rubber made from polymerized chloroprene and is resistant to heat, oil, and weathering

Nylon – a long-chained polymeric amide used for fibers, sheeting and extruded forms – invented by Wallace Hume
Carothers in 1935

Polyvinyl chloride – a thermoplastic polymer that is tough and chemical resistant

Polyethelene – an ethylene resin plastic that is synthesized by

Polypropylene – a tough thermoplastic that resists moisture and solvents and is used to mold, in fibers and plating

Polystyrene – synthetic resin made of polymerization of styrene and used in injection molding, extruding and casting

Polyurethane foam – foam polyester used in insulation, padding and soundproofing

Pyrex glass – a hard and heat resistant borosilicate glass most often used in cookware

Safety glass – a glass containing wire or sheets of plastic that resists separating or a tempered glass that resists shattering

Silicon crystal – the large crystal from which is cut disks upon which computer chips are etched

Silicone – a fluid, resin, or elastomer that is water repellant and used in adhesives, cosmetics, and elastomers

Spray adhesive – an adhesive spread over an object through the use of a pressured gas

Stainless steel – a chromium steel alloy that does not tarnish or rust

Synthetic rubber – petroleum derived (olefinic) rubber substitute

Teflon - a polyterafluroethelene plastic used in protective coating of products – Roy Plunkett, DuPont – 1938

  Bubble memory – a type of memory using discrete, micro magnetic cells in an aluminum garnet substrate

Central Processing Unit (CPU) – a unit that consists of memory, arithmetic logic, and a control element

CD-ROM drives and disk – compact disk for recording and playing audio and images using optical technology

Data plotter – principally a machine printer for large-scale diagrammatic applications

Digital stylus – a pen that inputs writing or drawing digitally and directly into a computer system

Disk drive – an external disk drive that allows flexibility of use of an application or the storage of work

Dot matrix printer – a printer that uses striking pins to print the required computer instructed characters

Electric typewriter – a typewriter that works electrically and can have function keys and stored memory

Electronic keyboard – a device resembling a typewriter keyboard but with the pressure on the keys
translates into digital encoding

EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory – a fixed memory

Fax machine – a print in or print out digital machine used to send or receive copies of printed data

Ferrite memory – early computer core memory using iron as a medium

Flat recording disk – a disk recording system for sound reproduction

Flat screen – a flat computer screen most often used with portable computers and based upon TFT or DSTN

Floppy disk – a small disk that records and reads digital data for a micro or mini-computer

Handheld computer – a mini portable with almost all the PC functions

Hard dick drive or Winchester disk – a data memory device that uses multiple disk platters that float on a spindle

Inkjet printer – a computer printer that makes characters by forming droplets of ink onto a dot matrix pattern

Integrated circuit (I/C) – a number of single circuits joined together on a substrate as one chip

Joystick – a control device often used in robotics to control the positioning of the tool point as with a teach pendant

Laser printer – a printer that by line or page uses powerful coherent light beams to create the characters

LED/laser printer – (black & white), color) – light emitting diode sometimes used as portable computer screen elements

Magnetic drum memory – an early computer data storage device consisting of a magnetized drum over which
read/write heads operate

Magnetic tape and reader – thin magnetic plastic tape upon which data can be read

Mainframe computer – a large computer capable of running more than one program simultaneously

Microprocessor – a computer processor on a single chip

Mini computer – a transitional computer that is smaller than a mainframe and larger than a PC

Modulator – a device used for data transmission that changes digital data into a continuous signal

Mouse – an x,y,z device for the movement of a screen cursor and for function selection

Paper tape – paper tape that when punched with holes can hold memory and run machine tools

PC – a microcomputer used principally for personal applications

Portable computer – a computer that can be carried and can run off of batteries

Programmable pocket calculator – a digital calculator that can be programmed for different functions

RAM (Random Access Memory) – main memory chip in a computer

ROM (Read Only Memory) – a computer chip memory device that can be read but not written upon

Server – a powerful PC that may be more robust than a minicomputer and acts as a central server for a host of clients

Scanner – a reader that transmits flat work to a computer in digital form

Semiconductor diode (or crystal diode) – a two electrode-semiconductor that utilizes a pn junction or point contact

Thermal printer – a high-speed printer that uses heat to create the characters

Track ball – device that controls positioning on a computer screen and most often used in conjunction with graphics

Transistor – a small device or circuit that is a semi-conductor and is used in computers and other electronic devices

Touch screen – a screen that responds to human touch and allows for instructions through this response

Vacuum tube – an electron tube evacuated to a degree that allows its electrical characteristics to be unaffected by
gas or vapor

Video/graphics board – a computer board that allow the user to increase and make available large memory graphics
and video

  Cell controller – a controller that transmits to several machine controllers in a network

Comparator – a device that accepts and compares two analog signals and gives a digital output to indicate equality or not

CNC controller – Computer Numerical Controller using a dedicated stored program to perform some or all basic
NC functions

DNC controller – Direct Numerical Control controller that connects to a higher level computer control system and
instructs a machine tool

Hydraulic control – a system that converts forces by high pressure on a fluid to mechanical force

Intelligent I/O – Input/Output devices that are designed with integral microprocessors for specific communication
and control functions

Motor controller – a device that governs in a programmed sequence the electrical power delivered to a motor

NC controller – Numerical Control controller using coded tape to instruct a machine tool or a robot

Photoelectric control – control of a circuit or equipment by changes in incident light

PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) – control for analog devices in process manufacture

Pneumatic controller – a device for mechanical movement derived from pneumatic pressure

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) – a controller for the control of factory floor devices such as motors
and positioners

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) – controllers that supervise, regulate and record data in
processing industries

Servomechanism – a power device for effecting machine motion that uses a closed-loop system in which the
controlled variable is mechanical position or velocity

Temperature control – a device to control temperature in an oven, furnace or enclosed space

Tension device – a regulator or controller of tension on textile or sewing machines

  Abrasive flow machine – a machine for finishing holes and inaccessible places with a semi-solid or liquid abrasive

Abrasive jet machine – a device that uses an abrasive liquid to cut material under pressure

Arc welding gun – a device used to arc weld by application of heat from a consumable electrode

ATC (Automatic Tool Changer) – a device for changing tools for automated production from a crib on the tool or in
a separate storage

Automated boring machine (or jig boring) – a device that makes round holes in parts (both vertical and horizontal)

Automated planner – a cutting tool for large-scale work that uses a cutter that moves over the work-piece

Automated riveter – a machine that automatically forms the second head below a second plate

Automated shaper – a cutting tool for smaller scale where the tool stays and the work piece is fed through

Automated ultrasonic machine – cuts with abrasive slurry driven by a tool vibrating at high frequency

Automatic belt sander – an industrial belt sander with automatic alignment of belt

Automatic grinding and sanding machines – automatic tools for industrial grinding or sanding of surfaces

Automatic injection machine – a robotics injection machine that inserts circuits and other electronic devices in
a computer card

Automatic tool changer – a tool changing mechanism attached to a machine tool

Blanking machine – a metal piercing machine that cuts shapes in sheet metal using a flat bed positioner
and a ram and die combination

Blow molding machine – a machine that automatically produces plastic bottles and other complex forms by
pressure against a mold

Broaching machine – a fast cutting machine with an elongated and increasingly larger toothed cutters

Centerless grinder – a cylindrical metal-grinding machine that supports work between two abrasive wheels

Centrifugal casting machine – a mold for thermoplastics or metals that draws the material into the mold through rotation

Composite tape laying machine – robot like machine that lays down layers of plastic or metal composite materials
for parts like airplane wings

Drop forge (form of smith forge) – a tool using successive shaped dies to shape complex metal parts in a sequence
of operations

EBM (Electron Beam Machine) – uses electrical energy to generate thermal energy for removing material

EDM (Electrical Discharge Machine) – uses sparks within a dialectic enclosure to do machining

Electrolytic grinding – a combination of grinding and machining tool in which a cathodic wheel is in contact with an
anodic workpiece

Extruding machine – a machine that forces material (metal, plastic or material like food stuff) through a die using pressure

Finishing robot – an industrial robot that sprays coats of paint or other finishing material

Friction welder – a process that welds metal or thermoplastics in which two members are joined by rubbing the
mated parts under high pressure

Honing machine – a machine that shapes cylindrical surfaces by grinding of a wheel of abrasive stones

Industrial robot – a robot that has several programmable axis and end effector controls

Injection molding machine – a machine that transfers heated and softened thermoplastics from a barrel to a
cool mold cavity

Knitting machine – a machine that automatically knits a garment using the same interweaving as hand knitting

LBM (Laser Beam Machine) – uses an intense, coherent beam of single-wave light to cut, drill, and slot metal

Liquid jet machine – a use of fine, high pressure and a high velocity jet liquid to cut material

Machining center – an automatic machine tool capable of drilling, reaming, tapping, and boring on multiple faces
with a tool changer

Plastic injection molding machine – machines that mold products and parts by injecting plastic into a mold

Powdered metals press – a press that uses pressure to form metal powders through complex dies into parts

Press brake – a machine that automatically or semi-automatically bends sheet metal into programmed forms

Roll forming machine – a machine that uses a sequence of dies in an automated and programmed sequence
to shape sheet metal

Scara robot or assembly – normally an electric robot that assembles parts or products with vision and
testing/marking assists

Spinning machine – chip free production using a mandrel and a holder to form a cylindrical sheet metal work-piece

Stereo-lithography – a manufacturing device that lays down layers of plastic material from a program that
makes an object or part

Squaring shear – a cutting tool that operates top and bottom blades to cut a work-piece and is used in sheet metal work

Swage – a machine that tapers rods and tubes that are used in furniture and industry

Transfer machine – a series of machine stations in line that perform complex machining of parts like engine housings

Tube bending machines – a machine system that creates accurate bends in hollow tubes of metal

Turning center – a numerically controlled lathe that has been referred to as a turret or screw machine that usually
cuts with a robot assist

Ultrasonic cleaner – a cleaner of parts in a cleaning solution by imposition of an ultrasonics bath

Ultrasonic welding machine – a device that employs a high-frequency vibrating tool to impart ultrasonic energy
to the weld area

Vacuum forming machine – a machine that draws down a held sheet of plastic into a mold by a vacuum

Vertical press – an automated machine tool that uses great pressure to for,m metal parts using a ram and
hydraulic device

Wave soldering machine – a machine that automatically solders computer cards by waving the solder in holder

Welding robot – a robot that holds a welding tool and the automatic feeding and fuel devices for that tool

  Bar code – a code in the form of small, spaced, magnetic lines that can be printed as various data and read by a scanner

Bar code printer – a printer that prints the spaced lines indicating data on a label or other print material

Bar code scanner (or reader) – hand held optical scanner to read and record bas codes

Bar code scanner fixed – an optical scanner that is built into a line or warehouse station to read and record bar codes

Bar code terminal – a terminal used to display bar code information

Digital camera – camera that translates light into digital information

Holographic storage – storage of three dimensional laser images

Label printer – an automatic printing machine that prints labels exclusively from coiled rolls of laminated materials

OCR – an optical character scanner that reads characters by shape

OCR language – optical character reader language and standards

Tape recorder – a sound recording device that uses coated tape as a media

Video camera – a camera that records video signals for eventual play back on a recorder.

Video recorder – a magnetic tape recorder for storing video signals for communication of images and sound

  Automatic gage – an automatic in line device for gauging and accepting or rejecting parts depending upon a programmed measurement

Chart recorder – a recorder in which a dependent variable is plotted against an independent variable by ink pen

Conductometer – a device that measures thermal conductivity and compares rates at which different rods transmit heat

Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) – a fixed platform-measuring device for very refined measurements

Digital gage – a gauging tool that even hand held reads measurements and transcribes them digitally for display readout

Electric timer – a device that is set to signal when a programmed period of time is reached

Flow meter – a meter that measures flow in terms of mass rather than volume

Interferometer – a visual reference gauging tool using split and recombined light beams to compare geometry or surface temperature

Optical fiber sensor – A device that measures the modulation of intensity, spectrum, phase or polarization from a light-emitting diode

Photoelectric cell (electric eye) – a solid-sate photosensitive electron device where voltage is a function of incident radiation

Pneumatic telemeter – a transmitter of a pressure impulse through a small bore tube for sensing temperature,
flow, and pressure

Stroboscope – an instrument for making moving bodies and object visible intermittently by light flashes or by shutter

Ultrasonic transducer – a transducer that coverts ac current to mechanical vibrations of the same frequency

  BAC unit – as part of the HVAC system it consists of air conditioning units for removal of humidity and cooling of air

Alarm system – an automatic and often software driven alarming system for break down, error or accident in
processing and tooling

Clean room – a room that meets rigorous Federal Standard 209 for cleanliness by class

Compressor – a machine used to increase the pressure of a gas or a vapor

Dehumidifying system – a device that removes moisture from an environment by condensation

Fluorescent lighting – a tubular discharge lamp with ionization of mercury vapor that activates the fluorescent
coating on the glass

Heat pump – a device that transfers heat from a cooler to a hotter reservoir and expands energy in the process

Induction heater – heating by increasing the temperature in a material by inducted electric current

Industrial vacuum cleaner – a high power, large-scale vacuum for industrial applications

Lift platform – a semi-automatic working platform for reaching high places under human control

Overhead crane – a device that operates along an X, Y, Z axis and is used for lifting and positioning from overhead

Overhead door – an automatic door that is stored in its open position

Refrigerator – a closed-flow system in which refrigerant is compressed, condensed, and expanded to create cooling

Safety equipment – automatically triggered safety devices for workers on heavy machinery

Scrubber – a device for removal or washing out of entrained droplets or dust

Tungsten filament light bulb – a light bulb using a tungsten filament as an incandescent

  APT (Automatically Programmed Tools) – the language for instruction of NC and CVNC machine tools

CAD software – Computer Aided Design software that allows for product design and configuration along with their
specifications on computer

CAE software – Computer Aided Engineering software that deals with engineering analysis and testing

CAM software – Computer Aided Manufacturing software that takes CAD/CAE into working instructions and machine control

CAPP software – Computer Aided Process Planning software that plans elements for the manufacturing process

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) – a display system for computer data and drawings on a screen

PDM software – Product Data Management software for the management of design documents, approval processes and release

Scanner – a device for the input of flat work for digital form for computer manipulation

  Acoustic transducer – a device that converts acoustic energy to electric or mechanical energy

Argon ion laser – a laser that uses ionized argon

CCD camera – a Charged-Couple Device camera that transforms a light image into a digitized image

CID camera – a solid-state camera that uses a charge injection-imaging device (CID) to transform light into digital form

Force sensor – a device that detects and measures the magnitude of force exerted on an object and converts this to computer signals

Laser scanner – and imaging device that scans a spot of laser light along the image area and detects with a photo sensor

LCD – a Liquid Crystal Display device that aligns material in liquid suspension under voltage for display of alphanumeric characters

Machine vision systems – a system of devices that integrate a light source with a camera with a recording and inputting computer

Maser (Microwave amplification simulated emission of radiation) – a laser that emits microwaves

Motion transducer – a transducer for detecting linear or angular motion

Polaroid camera – a camera that takes and processes the picture internally and quickly

Pressure transducer – a device providing linear dc voltage output proportional to applied pressure

Proximity sensor – a sensing device that produces an electrical signal when approached by or when approaching and object

Xerox machine – a dry copying machine that uses powders that remain adhered to an electrically charged surface

  AGV – Automatic Guided Vehicles are transfer equipment that acts as a moving robotic platform for delivery and pick up
of machined parts

Automatic vibratory feeder – use of vibration to move objects along a surface to a position

Carousel – a circular motion-conveying machine that presents work-pieces to be loaded or unloaded often by a robot

Coil handler – mechanisms that keep coiled metal, plastic or paper in an orderly condition for use in various
processing systems

Forklift truck – a truck that uses a lifting fork to pick up and move goods for storage or manufacture

Magnetic conveyor – a conveyor that uses a translating magnetic field on the backside of a steel surface to cause
attracted parts to move

Overhead rail materials handling system – a computer driven parts and goods flow control system for manufacturing
and storage

Pneumatic conveyors – a conveyor that transports dry, free-flowing granular material by a high velocity air stream

Pneumatic weigh machines – a system for weighing in which load is detected by nozzle and balanced by opposed
modulating air pressure

Robotic system – robots specifically designed to lift, wrap, strap or otherwise package goods and parts

Shrink-wrap packaging equipment – a machine that surrounds a box or product in plastic sheet and by air withdrawal
wraps the product

Strapping machine – a machine for wrapping and binding with strap both packages and finished goods

Vacuum packaging – a device that wraps goods in plastic sheeting by the introduction of a drawn down vacuum

  Actuator – a device that performs an action in response to an electric signal such a solenoid

Air servomotor – a device that converts compressed air into rotary mechanical force and motion and is controlled by a servomechanism

Gas generator – an apparatus that supplies a high-pressure gas flow to drive compressors, airscrews and other machines

Hydraulic motor – an actuator that converts forces produced by high- pressure hydraulic fluids into mechanical shaft motion

Motion controller – a device that serves to govern in a preprogrammed manner the electrical power delivered to a motor

Smart motor – a programmable motor with feedback for self-regulation

Voltage and power regulator – a device used to maintain a desired output of voltage regardless of normal changes to input or output

  Cadmium-nickel storage cell – a nickel cadmium battery used extensively in small devices

Fuel cell – a cell that converts chemical energy directly into electrical energy

Gas (and expansion) turbine -

Photovoltaic cell – a cell that has the capability of generating a voltage as a result of exposure to visible or other
electromagnetic radiation

Nuclear energy system – an energy resource developed through the exploitation of atomic energy

Surge protector – a device that prevents power surges from reaching critical electronic tools and instruments

Transducers – a device through which energy can flow from more than one transmission system to another


  Assembly machine – a machine whose tooling works in automatic steps towards the assembly of parts and sub-assemblies

Pick and Place Manipulator – a robotic like device that is automatically driven along one axis and provided with a grip or off grip action

X, Y, Z glide – systems of glides that control two or axis of direction for a tool or robot component

  Ball race – an enclosed channel with ball bearings that provides circular friction reduced motion

Ball joint – joints that allow freedom of motion around a radial point, a sphere joint

Ball valve – a valve in which the fluid flow is regulated by a ball moving relative to a spherical socket

Needle valve – a slender pointed rod fitting in a conoidal seat used in hydraulic turbines and hydroelectric systems

O-ring – a sealing system using a ring together with a straight-sided grove that is used principally for pistons in sliding cylinders

Self-lubricating bearing – a mechanical bearing that is sealed with lubrication provided

Solenoid valve – a valve activated by a solenoid for control of gases and liquids in a pipe

  Brushless motor – an efficient motor that operates without conducting brushes

Bus network – a type of LAN in which all devices are attached in separate nodes

Cassette recorder – a recording and play back system using magnetic tape as a media

Coaxial cable – an insulated multi-layer data transmission product that carries broad and base-band transmissions

Demultiplexer – a digital device that guides data from an input to one of various outputs

Direct current motor – and electric rotating machine energized by direct current and used to convert electrical energy to
mechanical energy

Ethernet – a bus-network form of LAN in which data is passed in variable length packets – highly used in industry

Fiber optics transmission system – a transmission system that uses small transparent fibers over which light is transmitted

LAN – a Local Area Network used for internal communications

Modem – a tool that converts serial digital data from a terminal to a suitable signal over a telephone system

Multiplexer – a device used to divide a transmission channel facility into two or more sub-channels

Relay – an electromagnetic switching device having multiple electrical contacts that energize by electrical current through a coil

RFC device – a Radio Frequency Communication device that communicates over a host computer without wires in the manufacturing environment

Ring network – data in this network moves around a ring until reaching its selected node

Router – a device in a LAN that receives and sends signals through data-link layers and network layer protocols

Star network – a node arrangement that has a central point through which all data passes

Stepper motor – a rotary electric motor (usually) that moves in a series of uniform steps

Telstar – the first satellite communication device

WAN – a Wide Area Network for external communication and normally over telephone lines

  ADA – a high level programming language usually complied and used basically for numerical data

AML – a manufacturing language of a high level for programming robotic systems

APPS – Automated Parts Programming System is a means by which to trace parts, templates or drawings for NC machining

ARPT – a contouring and positioning language for machine tools

BASIC – Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code language used widely in PCs

C – C and C++ are program languages particularly suited for writing systems programs

CMMS – Computer Maintenance Management software for machine and tool maintenance and predictive maintenance

COBAL – Common Business Oriented Language is a common programming language

Database – a system of files that can be accessed by a DBMS

DBMS – a database management system that handles records and is needed to run a database

DOS – a Disk Operating System is an operating system most suitable for microcomputers

EDI software – Electronic Data interchange software that allows for interchange of business data electronically

ERP – software that is built upon earlier manufacturing enterprise software (MRP, MRP II) that integrates data from manufacturing and the business side of the enterprise

FORTH – a programming language for small computers

FORTRAN – a widely used programming language for scientific and engineering work

Ladder Programming Language – a critical PLC language that uses instruction symbols like a relay ladder diagram

LISP – a programming language associated with handling linked lists and used extensively in artificial intelligence

MES – Manufacturing Execution Systems software for the execution layer of the manufacturing process

NT – New technology operating system that adds networking capability to a replacement of MS/DOS

PASCAL – a program language for basic programming

PROLOG – a programming language most suitable for logical operations on groups of data

Simulation – software that allows a user to create computer mathematical models to test feasibility of a real system

Transportation and Logistics Management software – software for inbound and outbound customer fulfillment

UNIX – an operating system developed by Bell Telephone for large computers but is now generic

Visicalc – first spread sheet for personal computer use

Warehouse/Inventory Management software – a software for goods receiving, storing, positioning, distribution management and inventory control

  Automated Storage & Retrieval system (AS/RS) – a system for storing and retrieving of kitted parts from storage racks automatically

Conveyor belt – a moving belt holding goods for application of tools at workplaces

Kitting equipment – a means of pulling and kitting stock and sending it to the work floor for assembly


End effector – tools attached to the end of robot wrists for lifting, spraying, adhering, magnetizing, etc.

Electric belt sander – a tool that uses a belt of abrasive sheeting in a holder that self aligns the action

Electric cut off saw – an automatic or semi-automatic tool that uses abrasive wheels at high speed to cut bars or
ingots of metal

Electric hand grinder – a high-speed electrical wheel or spinning tool for abrasive hand grinding

Electric soldering iron – a tool for joining two metals using solder, resin, and heat

Electric stapler – a machine used in packaging and woodworking to join automatically or semi-automatically two
surfaces by a wire brad

Electric wrench – an electrically powered wrench with greater than human force and reversible

Hand held spray gun – a portable spray gun attached to a compressor

Manual welding system – a welding system that is operated by a welder often with mechanical advantage assists


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